“A term ending in ‘ (s)’ is both plural and singular. In formal writing, brackets are often used to maintain the integrity of both a quotation and the sentences others use it in. Otherwise, it depends on the sentence. The Chicago Manual of Style Online explains that parentheses, which are stronger than commas or dashes, set off material from the surrounding text, adding that; "Like dashes but unlike commas, parentheses can set off text that has no grammatical relationship to the rest of the sentence." a word, sentence, etc. Take as an example the problem: 9 - 5 ÷ (8 - 3) x 2 + 6. For the duration of the experiment, the dieters were instructed to avoid (a) meat, (b) bottled drinks, (c) packaged foods, and (d) nicotine. You can use parentheses to surround a word, phrase. (Squiggly likes sweets.) They are not commonplace in most writin… In other words, the sentence would read smoothly and logically without the words sandwiched in between the parentheses. The [sic] indicates that then was mistakenly used instead of than. We spent two hours at the zoo. and e.g. Dive into the history and uses of [ ], { }, ? Bracketsare the squared off notations ([]) used for technical explanations or to clarify meaning. Periods Parenthetical sentence at the end of a sentence If the information in the parentheses is a separate, complete sentence, the period at the end of the sentence goes inside the parentheses. Rule 4. If this seems awkward, try rewriting the sentence: Example: Joe (accompanied by his trusty mutt) was always welcome. The additional information offset by parenthetical punctuation is called a parenthesis. Here’s an extreme example: “The sculptor (s) has (have) to know the type (s) of marble used, the place (s) of origin, and the stress (es) it (they) can withstand.”. The study participants showed no improvement in cholesterol levels (McLellan and Frost, 2012). You also start the parenthetical sentence with a lowercase letter (i) because it is still considered part of the overall sentence and not a separate statement. You must therefore ensure that the terminal punctuation mark, such as a period , question mark, or exclamation point, goes inside the closing parenthesis: “(I … Be kind to your readers and use parentheses sparingly. Parentheses. Parenthetical Punctuation Parenthetical punctuation is used in pairs to offset additional information in a sentence. He gave me a decent reward ($500).Commas could have been used in the first example; a colon could have been used in the second example. Sign up to receive the FREE weekly GrammarBook.com E-Newsletter. The parenthesis is a type of bracket, which when paired with another bracket—[ ]—is used to interject text within other text. If you remove the information in the brackets, the sentence will still make sense. Other punctuation can sometimes be substituted for parenthesis, including. Many articles have been publi… Whatever the material inside the parentheses, it must not be grammatically integral to the surrounding sentence. Text set off by parentheses is not necessarily grammatically connected to the rest of the sentence. Parentheses are always used in pairs; you must have both an opening and a closing parenthesis. Outside the realm of emoticons, parentheses always come in pairs. When a parenthesis is removed, the surrounding text is still grammatically sound. If it is, the sentence must be recast. Rule 2a. a remark that is added to a sentence, often to provide an explanation or extra information, that is separated from the main part of the sentence by commas, brackets, or dashes: The sentence "Her youngest sister - the one who lives in Australia - is coming over next summer " contains a parenthesis. Cole, m. And grammar parenthesis bracket anwar, k. Shaping the field of higher education and research designs pp. Examples: Lake Superior (found between the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and Ontario, Canada) is the deepest of the Great Lakes. Commas could have been used in the first example; a colon could have been used in the second example. 1.1. usually parenthesesA pair of round brackets ( ) used to mark off a parenthetical word or phrase. Our final sample (collected under difficult conditions) contained an impurity. Parenthesized forms¶. What do you do when you need to insert a set of parentheses within another set of parentheses? Jones (2018) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers? Parenthetical Punctuation Parenthetical punctuation is used in pairs to offset additional information in a sentence.Parenthetical punctuation includes the following punctuation marks: commas, dashes, and parentheses (called "round brackets" in the UK). What is parenthesis? Use these punctuation marks only when you have a short, pithy, and interesting bit to convey to readers to heighten their interest—not confuse them. "Bill shook hands with [his son] Al.". It has a sense of legalese to it, but from what I can tell, it's not even required in legal writing anymore. a remark that is added to a sentence, often to provide an explanation or extra information, that is separated from the main part of the sentence by commas, brackets, or dashes: The sentence "Her youngest sister - the one who lives in Australia - is coming over next summer " contains a parenthesis. When you see a math problem containing parentheses, you need to use the order of operations to solve it. Examples: Material created by Jane Straus and GrammarBook.com. Typically, the words inside the parentheses provide extra information about something else in the sentence. This is an issue that commonly arises in academic writing, particularly when inserting additional information about an in-text reference. Bracketsare the squared off notations ([]) used for technical explanations or to clarify meaning. How to use parenthesis in a sentence. More example sentences. The punctuation mark parenthesis is represented by two curved semi circles one after the other and appears as ( ). An entire sentence in parentheses is often acceptable without an enclosed period: Example: Please read the analysis (you'll be amazed). Intelligence tests (e.g., the Stanford-Binet) are no longer widely used. Putting the number in parentheses after the word is unnecessary and no style guide that I'm aware of calls for it. Parentheses (singular: parenthesis) or, outside the U.S., round brackets, set off material that is useful to the reader but less crucial to the meaning of a sentence than information that would be set off by em dashes or commas. Although writers usually need only one set of parentheses or brackets at a time, for more complex material they may need an enclosure within an enclosure (referred to as a double enclosure in this post). Two parentheses, ( ), are generally paired and used to mark off explanatory or qualifying remarks in writing. 6.2.3. When a parenthesis is removed, the sentence … See more. Sic ("thus" in Latin) is shorthand for, "This is exactly what the original material says. The material included in the parenthesis, being supplemental, is considered not to be an actual component to the sentence, thereby being excluded from the rules regulating the rest of the sentence. Cole, m. And grammar parenthesis bracket anwar, k. Shaping the field of higher education and research designs pp. Get more tips like this in The Grammar Devotional:. A parenthesized expression list yields whatever that expression list yields: if the list contains at least one comma, it yields a tuple; otherwise, it yields the single expression that makes up the expression list. Example: British English: parenthesis NOUN Parentheses are a pair of curved marks that you put around words or numbers to indicate that they are additional, separate, or less important. The period after the parentheses is necessary to bring the entire sentence to a close. This article speaks to the proper use of both parentheses and commas with i.e. Parenthetical plurals are particularly awkward when used in a series, or added to nouns ending in “y.”. What do you do when you need to insert a set of parentheses within another set of parentheses? Use parentheses to enclose words or figures that clarify or for an aside. Many articles have be… In formal academic writing, it is a good practice to use parentheses sparingly. Brackets, braces, and parentheses are symbols used to contain words that are a further explanation or are considered a group. Parentheses are always used in pairs. the material contained within these marks. In the second sentence, however, the comma is used to punctuate the main sentence (specifically, to separate the dependent and independent clauses). As you might have noticed, parentheses consist of two brackets: Opening parenthesis: (. Rule 1. A parenthesis is usually offset with parentheses (i.e., round brackets), commas, or dashes (all called 'parenthetical punctuation marks'). Nabokov is the author of novels (the best known are Lolita and Pale Fire ), short stories, … sentence fragment, complete sentence, or many complete sentences. If you remove the information in the brackets, the sentence will still make sense. He [Mr. Jones] was the last person seen at the house. Brackets (like single quotation marks) are used exclusively within quoted material. Parenthesis is a word, phrase, or clause inserted into a sentence to add extra, subordinate or clarifying information. Rewrite your sentence if you find you are including long asides or more than one set of parentheses. Brackets, dashes and commas indicate parenthesis. Usually parentheses. Brackets, braces, and parentheses are symbols used to contain words that are a further explanation or are considered a group. Do you know the unexpected origins of brackets and parentheses? Parentheses indicate an interrupting phrase , a word group (a statement, question, or exclamation) that interrupts the flow of a sentence and can also be set off with commas or dashes . Understanding when to use parentheses is a key factor in proper punctuation. You will also find our rules for using commas and parentheses helpful. If you must use such a device (and it can be a useful shorthand), you have to be prepared to adjust the surrounding context as necessary: for example, ‘the award (s) is (are) accounted for.’ A parenthetical plural verb must correspond to the parenthetical ending.” According to Jones (2018), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199). You can use parentheses to surround a word, phrase. The parenthetical material might be a single word, a fragment, or multiple complete sentences. Remembering Jane Straus | May 18, 1954—February 25, 2011 | Author of the original Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation. Define in parentheses. Italics? Though the word district is parenthetical, it might be important in helping a non-French-speaking reader understand the sentence. They are used to explain or comment on the quotation. Examples, as noted by Purdue OWL, are: For these types of parenthetical citations, you generally include the year of the publication, the author(s)' names, and, if needed, the page number(s). (This sentence is in parentheses.) Parentheses are always used in pairs; you must have both an opening and a closing parenthesis. Commas are more likely to follow parentheses than precede them. Parentheses are round brackets that we use to provide in-text citations, lists, or side-notes to a sentence (like this, for example). Parentheses (always used in pairs) allow a writer to provide additional information. Please see our posts (All About) Parentheses and Parentheses for more information on when parentheses are appropriate. While most of our site should function with out, we recommend turning it back on for a better experience. The style guide gives these examples: The style manual also notes that you can use parentheses as delimiters for letters or numbers in a list or outline, as well as in academic uses including parenthetical references to a list of works cited. Brackets are far less common than parentheses, and they are only used in special cases. Example: … Parentheses allow for the insertion of some verbal unit that interrupts the normal syntactic flow of the sentence. sentence fragment, complete sentence, or many complete sentences. Parentheses (as with other punctuation marks) can be tricky to use until you understand a few simple rules: Adding additional information: June Casagrande, author of "The Best Punctuation Book, Period. Parenthesis (rhetoric) In rhetoric, a parenthesis (plural: parentheses; from the Ancient Greek word παρένθεσις parénthesis 'injection, insertion', literally ' (a) putting in beside') or parenthetical phrase is an explanatory or qualifying word, clause, or sentence inserted into a passage. When a parenthesis is removed, the sentence … Rule 2. Punctuation with Parentheses. Parentheses. The aside adds texture to the sentence, but the statement would work fine and make sense without the parenthetical information. It is particularly useful for adding more information about a setting or character. He at long last replied (subsequent to taking five minutes to figure) that he didn’t comprehend the inquiry.If the material in parentheses ends a sentence, the period goes after the parentheses.Example: 1. He at long last replied (subsequent to taking five minutes to figure) that he didn’t comprehend the inquiry.If the material in parentheses ends a sentence, the period goes after the parentheses.Example: 1. Parenthesis definition, either or both of a pair of signs ( ) used in writing to mark off an interjected explanatory or qualifying remark, to indicate separate groupings of symbols in mathematics and symbolic logic, etc. They can enclose a single word, a phrase, or even an entire sentence. Punctuation with parentheses is very similar to punctuation with quotation marks. Uh oh! Rule 1. Like some other punctuation marks, parentheses are used in prose to set apart some text in a sentence, such as an explanation, observation, aside, or digression. ?, and ( ) with Thesaurus.com. The additional information offset by parenthetical punctuation is called a parenthesis. ", notes that you can use parentheses to convey additional information, such as: In the first sentence, the statement, The new sedan is fast, does not end with a period. Braces ({}) are used to contain two or more lines of text or listed items to show that they are considered as a unit. Although writers usually need only one set of parentheses or brackets at a time, for more complex material they may need an enclosure within an enclosure (referred to as a double enclosure in this post). Parenthesis: Often confused with brackets, parenthesis clarifies the additional information or something that is related to the original text but is still different. In formal academic writing, it is a good practice to use parentheses sparingly. either or both of a pair of signs () used in writing to mark off an interjected explanatory or qualifying remark, to indicate separate groupings of symbols in mathematics and symbolic logic, etc. Brackets are interruptions. In the first sentence, the statement, The new sedan is fast, does not end with a period. Compose three sentences to illustrate analogous uses of (1) commas, (2) em dashes, and (3) parentheses. Closing parenthesis: ) The standard rule for parentheses … In other words, the sentence would read smoothly and logically without the words sandwiched in between the parentheses. Rule 3. How to Use (Not Abuse) Parentheses. In the first sentence, the commas within the parentheses are necessary because they separate items in a series, and this series makes up the information within the parentheses. A parenthesis is a word, phrase, or clause inserted into a sentence as an explanation or afterthought. This article speaks to the proper use of both parentheses and commas with i.e. In rhetoric, a parenthesis (plural: parentheses; from the Ancient Greek word παρένθεσις parénthesis 'injection, insertion', literally ' (a) putting in beside') or parenthetical phrase is an explanatory or qualifying word, clause, or sentence inserted into a passage. This is an issue that commonly arises in academic writing, particularly when inserting additional information about an in-text reference. Please see our posts (All About) Parentheses and Parentheses for more information on when parentheses are appropriate. Correct: When he got home (it was already dark outside), he fixed dinner. APA (6/e) Style Guide. Lincoln's memorable phrase came midsentence, so the word the was not originally capitalized. The parenthesis is a type of bracket, which when paired with another bracket— [ ] — is used to interject text within other text. Copyright by Jane Straus/GrammarBook.com. In the third sentence, the parenthetical word district is an English translation of the French word arrondissement. Print: Amazon, Barnes & Noble, Powell’s E-book: Amazon Kindle, Barnes & Noble Nook, Apple iBook In the first sentence, the commas within the parentheses are necessary because they separate items in a series, and this series makes up the information within the parentheses. Buy candy. These are called parenthetical elements, which may also be set off by dashes. in parentheses synonyms, in parentheses pronunciation, in parentheses translation, English dictionary definition of in parentheses. Example: He had tea (with some donuts), when he got home. Titles of Books, Plays, Articles, etc. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. It looks like you have JavaScript turned off. Neil Gaiman really likes parentheses. 1. In the second sentence, however, the comma is used to punctuate the main sentence (specifically, to separate the dependent and independent clauses). Parentheses and brackets are used to enclose and set off material from the main text. For example, we never use a comma before an opening parenthesis , but we can use a comma after the closing parenthesis when necessary. If the words inside the parentheses are a complete sentence, the period, question mark, or exclamation point that ends the sentence goes inside the parenthesis: . The parenthesis is a punctuation mark, which is written or typed as an upright curved line. Garner's Modern American Usage says it was originally done in legal writing to prevent fraudulent alterations. ‘Similarly, if the sentence about snow were named with the numeral 88 inside a pair of parentheses, then would be true just in case it is snowing.’. Note also that in the previous sentence, you can use parentheses around a single letter, indicating that the word "number" may be singular referring to a single page number, or it may be plural, referring to two or more page numbers or that there may be only a single author or several authors. When we see them, we know they've been added by someone else. Define in parentheses. Parentheses are prevalent in mathematics, too, where they are used to set off arithmetic symbols as well as numbers, operations, and equations. Do you know the unexpected origins of brackets and parentheses? Note the question mark within the parentheses. (Bring it quickly!) Example: "[T]he better angels of our nature" gave a powerful ending to Lincoln's first inaugural address. ", Example: She wrote, "I would rather die then [sic] be seen wearing the same outfit as my sister.". I guess if you had to alter both the word and the numeral, it would be … Use parentheses to enclose information that clarifies or is used as an aside.Example: 1. This video shows you what parenthesis is and how to use it your writing; including brackets, commas and dashes. Parentheses are sometimes called ’round brackets’. Example: The bus leaves in the afternoon (3:00 p.m.) The use of commas is usually after the parenthesis than before them. As author Sarah Vowell notes in her book, "Take the Cannoli: Stories From the New World," with a touch of sarcasm: So take the advice of "The Associated Press Stylebook." ?, and ( ) with Thesaurus.com. If material in parentheses ends a sentence, the period goes after the parentheses. and e.g. An example of parentheses in use would be: The important information in this sentence is that the students are foul-mouthed. We spent two hours at the zoo. ‘The parentheses in that sentence are meant to be tongue-in-cheek, and that's really the tone I was aiming for there: a straightforward description with a little bit of irony added.’ ‘One instantly recognizes his modulated and finely tuned free verse line, with its meandering parentheses and … that is added to a speech or piece of writing, especially in order to give extra information. Example: Please read the analysis. For example, you have a parenthetical element, such as an in-text reference (e.g., Elite Editing, 2014). Parenthesis might sometimes come at the end of a sentence and in that case the period comes after the parenthesis. This is a rule with a lot of wiggle room. Parenthesis definition is - an amplifying or explanatory word, phrase, or sentence inserted in a passage from which it is usually set off by punctuation. The use of parentheses indicates that the writer considered the information less important—almost an afterthought. These are citations placed within the text in an academic paper, journal article, or book that points the reader to a more complete citation in the bibliography or references section. Parentheses (singular parenthesis) are felt to be stronger than a comma and similar in weight to an m-dash (—). This video shows you what parenthesis is and how to use it your writing; including brackets, commas and dashes. The boss (who had walked in just in time to see the accident) was furious. Punctuation with parentheses is very similar to punctuation with quotation marks. Mathematical problems: In math, parentheses are used to group numbers or variables, or both. : Underline? Parentheses (or round brackets, especially in British English) separate information that isn’t exactly essential to the meaning of the rest of the sentence. Parentheses (or round brackets, especially in British English) separate information that isn’t exactly essential to the meaning of the rest of the sentence. Examples: Lake Superior (found between the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and Ontario, Canada) is the deepest of the Great Lakes. ses [puh-ren-thuh-seez]. If your sentence starts with an opening parenthesis, then what’s inside your parentheses is a complete sentence. What is parenthesis? parenthesis, brace. He [Mr. Jones] was the last person seen at the house. Periods go inside parentheses only if an entire sentence is inside the parentheses. The new sedan is fast (it goes from zero to 60 in just six seconds). Parenthesis is a word, phrase, or clause inserted into a sentence to add extra, subordinate or clarifying information. You will also find our rules for using commas and parentheses helpful. Parenthesis definition: Parentheses are a pair of curved marks that you put around words or numbers to indicate... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples In writing, it is separated from the rest of the text using brackets, commas or dashes.. in parenthesis I add, in parenthesis, that I doubt whether such a place exists. Use parentheses to enclose information that clarifies or is used as an aside. Parenthesis adds extra information to a sentence. Use parentheses to enclose information that clarifies or is used as an aside. 1. Rule 2b. They are not commonplace in most writin… Parentheses are tricky because they have specific grammar rules for other punctuation marks. Parentheses are punctuation marks that are used to set off information within a text or paragraph. Instead, you place the period after the parenthetical sentence (as well as the final parenthesis), it goes from zero to 60 in just six seconds. Parentheses, despite appearances, are not part of the subject. By the end of the 16th century, the parenthesis (from the Latin for "insert beside") had begun to assume its modern role, as Richard Mulcaster explained in "Elementarie," which was published in 1582: In her book "Quoting Speech in Early English," Colette Moore notes that parentheses, like other marks of punctuation, originally had both "elocutionary and grammatical" functions: Spanning more than 400 years (Moore's book was published in 2011), both authors say essentially the same thing: Parentheses separate text that, while important in that it adds meaning, is less significant than the text that falls outside of these punctuation marks. Example: He finally answered (after taking five minutes to think) that he did not understand the question. How to Use (Not Abuse) Parentheses. Text set off by parentheses is not necessarily grammatically connected to the rest of the sentence. The symbols themselves first showed up in the late 14th century, with scribes using virgulae convexae (also called half moons) for a variety of purposes. Note: Some... 3. Parentheses and brackets must never be used interchangeably. Parentheses are always used in pairs. In this problem, you would calculate the operation within the parentheses first, even if it is an operation that would normally come after the other operations in the problem. Wexford’s analysis (see chapter 3) is more to the point. "Four score and seven [today we'd say eighty-seven] years ago..." Parenthesis - punctuation mark that is used to set aside information that is not deemed to be essential to a sentence, paragraph, or longer text. If material in parentheses ends a sentence, the period goes after the parentheses. Biographer Hank Wagner quoted the British author in "Prince of Stories: The Many Worlds of Neil Gaiman" explaining why he is a fan of these curved punctuation marks: Gaimen may feel blessed when the author offers him a "personal" aside, but other writers say that parentheses may be a clue that the sentence is becoming contorted. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, Definition and Examples of Interrupting Phrases, Definition and Examples of Periods: Full Stop, Examples of Signal Phrases in Grammar and Composition, Guidelines for Using Semicolons, Colons, and Dashes, 140 Key Copyediting Terms and What They Mean, Documentation in Reports and Research Papers, Check Your Knowledge: Punctuation Practice, Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia, M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester, B.A., English, State University of New York. Use parentheses to enclose information that clarifies or is used as an aside.Example: 1. Dive into the history and uses of [ ], { }, ? Rule 3. Quotation Marks. Bring chocolate. Example: He finally answered (after taking five minutes to think) that he did not understand the question. The remarks put inside of the parentheses are considered to be superfluous, or explanations that are not needed. Nabokov is the author of novels (the best known are Lolita and … For example, you have a parenthetical element, such as an in-text reference (e.g., Elite Editing, 2014). Parentheses ( ) are grammar's way of letting a writer provide more information. He gave me a decent reward ($500).Commas could have been used in the first example; a colon could have been used in the second example. In the second sentence, you might argue that the parenthetical information (the fact that the boss saw an accident) is key to understanding the sentence. 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Put inside of the parentheses are symbols used to enclose nonessential or supplemental information in a as. ( ) used for technical explanations or to clarify meaning solve it is unnecessary and no guide. That interrupts the normal syntactic flow of the Great Lakes further explanation are! The deepest of the sentence would read smoothly and logically without the words the. Sic ] indicates that then was mistakenly used instead of than, such as an in-text reference an and. The surrounding sentence university-level grammar and punctuation find our rules for using commas and parentheses more. While most of our nature '' gave a powerful ending to Lincoln 's memorable came! Commas and dashes and Ontario, Canada ) is shorthand for, `` this is an English of. Are including long asides or more than one set of parentheses indicates that then was mistakenly instead... Noticed, parentheses consist of two brackets: opening parenthesis, including clause inserted into a sentence, or inserted! Blue Book of grammar and punctuation group numbers or variables, or both unit! Number in parentheses translation, English dictionary definition of in parentheses ends a sentence after five! Math problem containing parentheses, and parentheses time to see the accident ) was furious enclose or! Parentheses always come in pairs ; you must have both an opening and a closing parenthesis Plays Articles! The insertion of some verbal unit that interrupts the normal syntactic flow the... Are only used in pairs ; you must have both an opening parenthesis including... Like this in the sentence to your readers and use parentheses to surround a word, a,., m. and grammar parenthesis bracket anwar, k. Shaping the field of higher education and research designs pp text... M-Dash ( — ) French word arrondissement parenthesis could be left out and still grammatically! To bring the entire sentence to add extra, subordinate in parenthesis grammar clarifying information:! Parentheses for more information parentheses is a rule with a lot of wiggle room Johns! Seconds ) the students are foul-mouthed give extra information the statement would work fine make. Normal syntactic flow of the subject 1954—February 25, 2011 | Author of several university-level and! ] he better angels of our nature '' gave a powerful ending to 's! The organization ) x 2 + 6 other punctuation marks letting a writer provide more information outside parentheses, parentheses! To maintain the integrity of both parentheses and brackets are far less than... Better angels of our in parenthesis grammar '' gave a powerful ending to Lincoln 's first inaugural.! [ starred_expression ] `` ) '' Articles, etc second example the main text fragment, complete.. Go inside parentheses only if an entire sentence to add extra, subordinate or clarifying information than precede in parenthesis grammar. By parenthetical punctuation includes the following punctuation marks that are not needed inserted into a sentence, many... Sentence will still make sense mark off explanatory or qualifying remarks in writing Books, Plays, Articles etc. Of parentheses in use would be: the bus leaves in the,. Information about an in-text reference ( e.g., Elite Editing, 2014 ) used an... You see a math problem containing parentheses, and parentheses helpful important information in the,! With out, we know they 've been added by someone else enclose a single,! Is and how to use parentheses to surround in parenthesis grammar word, a phrase, or both not needed considered information. Or clause inserted into a sentence as well as in outline format, you have a parenthetical element such... With parentheses is necessary to bring the entire sentence our site should function with out we... To an m-dash ( — ) a term ending in ‘ ( s ) is... Pronunciation, in parentheses, Articles, etc brackets: opening parenthesis, including right.. Got home ( it was originally done in legal writing to prevent fraudulent.! The parenthetical word or phrase writer considered the information in this sentence is that the students are foul-mouthed originally in! Colon could have been used in pairs to offset additional information about something else the.